Google+ The Daily Jewel: #GIA Winter 2017 Gems & Gemology Explores Cullinan-Like Diamonds, Gem Carvers and Research Developments


Friday, February 23, 2018

#GIA Winter 2017 Gems & Gemology Explores Cullinan-Like Diamonds, Gem Carvers and Research Developments

Winter 2017 Gems & Gemology Explores Cullinan-Like Diamonds,
Gem Carvers and Research Developments
Includes a full-color wall chart of ruby inclusions

The Winter 2017 issue of Gems & Gemology (G&G), GIA’s (Gemological Institute of America’s) quarterly professional journal, explores the deep geologic origins of the world’s biggest and purest diamonds and what they tell us about the earth; the Dreher family of gem carvers of Idar-Oberstein; the first characterization of Australian Akoya cultured pearls; recent improvements in GIA’s reference standards for trace element analysis; and a comparison of two X-ray microradiography detectors. It also contains a wall chart of inclusions in natural, treated and synthetic ruby. The issue is available in print by subscription and in the GIA Store, and digitally – at no cost – on

G&G opens with “The Very Deep Origin of the World’s Biggest Diamonds.” GIA research scientist Dr. Evan Smith, Dr. Steven Shirey of the Carnegie Institution for Science and Dr. Wuyi Wang, GIA’s vice president of research and development, co-authored the cover article. Their work expands on research presented in the December 2016 issue of Science magazine, in which Dr. Smith and a team of researchers uncovered how Cullinan-like, nitrogen-poor “CLIPPIR” diamonds contain inclusions that offer insight into the nature and formation of the Earth’s mantle. The G&G article provides more detail on the key features of these diamonds as well as data on additional samples.

On the cover of the Winter 2017 issue of Gems & Gemology is the 812 ct Constellation diamond. Recovered from the Karowe mine in Botswana in November 2015. At the time of publication, it was the sixth-largest gem-quality rough diamond ever recorded. The size, near absence of inclusions, low nitrogen content, shape and surface texture place it in a special variety known as CLIPPIR diamonds, which are reviewed in the lead article in this issue. Photo by Jian Xin (Jae) Liao/GIA.

“Gem Virtuosos: The Drehers and Their Extraordinary Carvings” explores the work of a multigenerational family of gem carvers, the Drehers of Idar-Oberstein, Germany. Robert Weldon, Cathleen Jonathan and Rose Tozer of GIA’s Richard T. Liddicoat Library and Information Center focus on the contemporary craft of Gerd Dreher and his son, Patrick, who create elegant gem carvings from high-quality agate and other rough gem materials.

Research by Dr. Laura Otter and coauthors is presented in “Akoya Cultured Pearl Farming in Eastern Australia.” This is the first gemological characterization of Australian akoya cultured pearls using Raman, photoluminescence, FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

Additional articles cover new developments in industry techniques: Dr. Jennifer Stone-Sundberg’s “Accurate Reporting of Key Trace Elements in Ruby and Sapphire Using Matrix-Matched Standards” and Dr. Stefanos Karampelas’s “Real-Time Microradiography of Pearls: A Comparison Between Detectors.”

The Winter 2017 issue of G&G also features a wall chart on ruby inclusions, the third in a series of charts on gem inclusions. The same team of specialists that created G&G’s Winter 2016 emerald inclusion chart and the Summer 2017 sapphire inclusion chart, led by GIA’s Nathan Renfro and John Koivula, documents a range of internal features found in natural, treated and synthetic ruby. Laminated versions of all three charts may be purchased at the GIA Store.

This and every issue of G&G since 1934, including full articles, lab notes, photo galleries and exclusive video footage, are available at no cost on GIA’s website at

Additional research articles are available at

Print subscriptions and copies of back issues are available at, or by contacting G&G customer service at +1 760-603-4502.

About GIA
An independent nonprofit organization, GIA (Gemological Institute of America), established in 1931, is recognized as the world’s foremost authority in gemology. GIA invented the famous 4Cs of Color, Clarity, Cut and Carat Weight and, in 1953, created the International Diamond Grading System™ which is recognized around the world as the standard for diamond quality.

Through research, education, gemological laboratory services and instrument development, the Institute is dedicated to ensuring the public trust in gems and jewelry by upholding the highest standards of integrity, academics, science and professionalism. Visit

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